Portable charging

Portable charger is a common term that means a device that can renew the battery supply of small household devices: cell phones, iPads, laptops. The key parameter is not even the capacity, but the consumption current. If it fits into the needs of the consumer, it can be paired with a portable charger.

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Varieties of portable devices for accumulating electrical energy

Today, the development of technology makes it possible to store a significant amount of electrical energy. These devices are called portable chargers as opposed to adapters, which are supposed to be connected to an industrial network of 220 V, 50 Hz for energy conversion. The advantage of portable batteries is their versatility. Let’s take an iPad and a simple cell phone. It is expensive to take an expensive voluminous battery for devices.

The volume of a lithium-ion battery for a cell phone is 520 mAh, for an Acer laptop – 5200. It seems that the numbers differ by an order of magnitude, but a portable charger for $ 10 can accumulate 8800 or more. This means that the device is good. Moreover, an ordinary cell phone will be able to operate from a portable power source … for a whole month. This is just an amazing opportunity for tourists on a par with Chinese radios with a built-in dynamo machine. For ease of use, the portable charger is supplied with a number of identification icons and control buttons:

  1. USB ports are used as universal power dispensers. Any adapter of a mobile gadget carries a standard output on the body. This allows you to change mobile phones, but not the charger: you just need to purchase a new cord (included) and use the equipment as before.
  2. Devices often differ in current consumption, because portable charging is equipped with a number of outputs. Each is designed for a specific gadget, and parallel use is not excluded. Let’s say people use a cell phone, take a smartphone or iPad on the road for convenient work with the Internet. It is convenient to buy the only portable charger for all occasions.
  3. The power button allows you to block accidental shorting of outputs, reduces the risk of emergency situations. The portable charger delivers voltage exclusively when the user presses. The indication LED helps you to orient yourself in the dark. A portable power source is often required where there is no other lighting: at night in a tent, on transport.
  4. Entry (in) and exits (out) must be signed. Along the way, the ratings of the given currents are indicated. Manufacturers follow the standards by providing 1 and 2 A as default. The first is suitable for cell phones, the second for the iPad.
  5. The charge indication system serves to visualize the process of filling the energy accumulator. This is a row of blinking arrows, the longer the process, the more segments are involved in the illumination. At the end of charging, the lights go out or remain lit.

In order to decide with a certain degree of confidence the question of the suitability of the power supply, you should find out the technical characteristics of the equipment. It’s about the maximum current consumption. If the value is not satisfied, a hardware failure will follow. The maximum current consumption is far from always indicated in the product passport, it is permissible to calculate the average. We will buy a 520 mAh battery, and a cell phone will run on it for 2 days. The parameter missing in the passport can be calculated.

The above figure says that the battery delivers a current of 520 mA for an entire hour. The default voltage is around 5V, which is the standard for the new generation of mobile devices. If the cell phone worked for two days, it means that it consumes 48 times (number of hours): 11.8 (3) mA. It is clear that the device will work from any socket. Now let’s look at the laptop.

With a 5200 mAh battery, the device works for 3 – 3.5 hours. This is not enough – the more the desire to purchase a portable charger. When in doubt about which output to connect to, look at the larger one – where 2 A. And now the specific numbers. When working for 3.5 hours, the laptop shows an average consumption of 5200 / 3.5 = 1.485 A. At the same time, it is taken into account that the peak performance of a processor or video card can be characterized by large numbers. By the way, the box often shows schematically the ratio of the volume of the charging battery to the same parameter of cell phones. So that the owner understands about the duration of his device.

If the current is not enough, the laptop will shut down, the operating system will crash, and imaging will be disrupted. The laptop is connected to the 2 A output, taking into account the technical capabilities. This means that any gadget is charged from the built-in USB port, but the laptop’s battery is filled through the built-in power supply. Therefore, the design will have to be finalized.

How portable charging works

The heart of the power source is a lithium-ion, lithium-polymer or other type of battery. Inside there is only a display system and a sensor (for example, Hall) to control the process of displaying the charge level. The methods differ depending on the intelligence of the algorithm. It is possible to generate low-amplitude current pulses, integrate information. The built-in chip on the board is able to control:

Overloads on input or output, including over voltage. In the latter case, the charging process will be terminated immediately. The chip also controls polarity in some cases, although there is little likelihood that the USB plug will be inserted in the wrong direction.

A short circuit in the consumer. In the event of an abnormal situation, the work is immediately stopped.

Battery control can reach stunning heights. The chip does not allow you to leave free space: the battery is filled to the top.

Element overheating warning. The topic about Incandescent bulbs says that it is more profitable to use high voltage. However, these power supplies have to be used. Most chipsets (chipsets) operate precisely with low voltages. For example, for KMPO it is 5 V. Although early versions of microcircuits sometimes required something different. Any electronics is based on a specific kind of logic. Transistor with Schottky barrier, emitter-coupled, etc.

We add that the thermal effect in conductors depends on the current, but not on the voltage, which is why modern processors get very hot. At low supply voltages, they draw tremendous current. But they cannot go to a higher threshold, they are implemented schematically on the types of logic mentioned above. This point must be clearly understood. But low voltage is harmless to humans, epilators, razors show electrical safety class III.

The devices allow you to safely use them in the shower, ideally using a portable charger. In most cases, household appliances use 9 or 12 V. This is a purely technical issue that is easy to get around.

The history of the creation of portable charging

The story should begin with Alessandro Volta, who separated the zinc and copper plates with cardboard dipped in brine (it is permissible to use cloth). It turned out to be a steep salt solution, not an acid – as indicated in some sources. As mentioned in the topic about Direct Current – Galvani discovered electricity of chemical origin by opening a frog. The hooks were made of different metals, and the muscles of the dead amphibian were twitching for some unknown reason.

Galvani explained this by the presence of “animal” electricity and remained far from the truth. Volta repeated the experiments and substantiated the essence of the phenomenon by the presence of a current closed between the metals through the electrolyte. As such, I chose one of the physiological fluids – salt water. Later on, acid became the electrolyte. Volta spent 9 years developing the first battery. And on 20 March 1800 he sent the manuscripts to the president of the Royal Society of London.

Leyden banks are considered the first accumulators. Invented in 1745, they have become the object of careful study by scientists. After the abolition of the persecution for witchcraft, people became interested in mysterious phenomena. The term “battery” was coined by Benjamin Franklin due to the similarity of a number of cans to an artillery position.

The zinc in the voltaic column was strongly corroded, which the inventor considered a defect that could be eliminated over time. Volta adhered to the outdated theory of contact today, and did not suspect that chemical reactions were at the core. Over time, it was found that corrosion intensifies when more current is consumed. That already directly indicated the electrochemical origin of the phenomenon. The Voltaic pillar opened the green light for further research into electricity, revealing a number of disadvantages:

Initially, the plates were stacked, the electrolyte flowed down the sides, causing short circuits. The complexity was quickly eliminated by placing the elements vertically in the box.

The chemical reaction proceeded with the formation of hydrogen, and the zinc was quickly covered with a layer of products. William Sturgeon (inventor of the electromagnet) in 1835 proposed to cover the plate with a thin layer of amalgam, which blocked the negative effects. The hydrogen problem was solved by John Frederick Daniel by introducing two electrolytes, one of which absorbed ions. The solutions are separated from each other by a ceramic barrier.

In polymer batteries, a specific solid (or condensed) electrolyte is used, which gave the name to the device. It is clear that in the event of a breakdown, such a technical solution eliminates a number of troubles. Lithium-ion batteries have a liquid electrolyte.